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The Nine Situations – jiu di pian di shi yi

Apr. 1, 2015

Sun Zi’s Art of War was written by Sun Wu in the final year of the Spring and Autumn

Period (770BC – 476BC).

It is not only the oldest Chinese military work in existence but also the oldest book

of military theory in the world, well-known for a long time in the history of the

military academy in China and abroad.

Sun Zi’s Art of War has altogether 13 chapters. Both concise and comprehensive,

this book sum up the experience of ancient wars, bring to light the many laws of

war which are of universal significance.

Want to know why business people like it so much? Come and learn Sun Zi’s Art of

War with eChineseLearning’s professional teachers!

jiǔ dì piān dì shí yī
九 地  篇   第 十 一

sūnzi yuē :yònɡ bīnɡ zhī fǎ ,yǒu sǎn dì ,yǒu qīnɡ dì , yǒu zhēnɡ
孙子   曰 :   用     兵    之 法 , 有  散  地 , 有   轻   地 ,   有   争

dì , yǒu jiāo dì , yǒu qú dì , yǒu zhònɡ dì , yǒu pǐ dì ,yǒu wéi
地 , 有    交 地 ,  有   衢 地 ,  有    重     地 ,  有 圮 地 , 有   围

dì , yǒu sǐ dì 。 zhū hóu zì zhàn qí dì ,wéi sǎn dì ;rù rén zhī dì
地 , 有  死 地 。 诸  侯    自 战   其 地 , 为  散  地 ;入 人  之 地

ér bù shēn zhě , wéi qīnɡ dì 。 wǒ dé zé lì , bǐ dé yì lì zhě ,wéi
而 不  深    者 ,    为   轻   地 。  我 得 则 利,彼 得 亦 利 者 , 为

zhēnɡ dì ;wǒ ké yí wǎnɡ ,bǐ ké yǐ lái zhě , wéi jiāo dì ; zhū hóu
争       地 ;我  可 以  往 ,  彼 可 以 来 者 ,   为  交   地 ;  诸  侯

zhī dì sān shǔ , xiān zhì ér dé tiān xià zhī zhònɡ zhě , wéi qú dì ;
之  地  三  属 ,    先  至  而 得  天  下  之   众       者 ,    为  衢 地 ;

rù rén zhī dì shēn ,bèi chénɡ yì duō zhě ,wéi zhònɡ dì ; xínɡ shān
入 人  之  地  深 ,   背   城     邑  多    者 ,  为    重     地 ;  行    山

lín 、 xián zǔ 、 jǔ zé 、 fán nán xínɡ zhī dào zhě ,wéi pǐ dì ;suǒ
林 、   险  阻 、 沮 泽 、 凡   难   行    之  道   者 ,   为 圮 地 ; 所

yóu rù zhě ài ,suǒ cónɡ ɡuī zhě yū ,bǐ ɡuǎ ké yǐ jī wú zhī zhònɡ
由   入  者  隘 , 所  从     归   者  迂 , 彼 寡  可 以 击 吾 之  众

zhě , wéi wéi dì ; jí zhàn zé cún , bù jí zhàn zé wánɡ zhě , wéi
者 ,    为   围 地 ; 疾 战   则  存 ,  不 疾  战   则   亡    者 ,    为

sǐ dì 。 shì ɡù sǎn dì zé wú zhàn , qīnɡ dì zé wú zhǐ , zhēnɡ dì zé
死 地。 是 故  散  地 则  无  战 ,     轻   地 则  无  止 ,    争    地 则

wú ɡōnɡ , jiāo dì zé wú jué , qú dì zé hé jiāo , zhònɡ dì zé lüè ,
无   攻 ,      交 地 则  无 绝 ,   衢 地 则 合 交 ,      重    地 则 掠 ,

pǐ dì zé xínɡ , wéi dì zé móu , sǐ dì zé zhàn 。
圮 地 则 行 ,    围 地 则 谋 ,    死 地 则 战 。

suǒ wèi ɡǔ zhī shàn yònɡ bīnɡ zhě ,nénɡ shǐ dí rén qián hòu bù xiānɡ
所    谓   古 之  善     用     兵     者 ,   能    使  敌 人   前    后   不   相

jí , zhònɡ ɡuǎ bù xiānɡ shì , ɡuì jiàn bù xiānɡ jiù , shànɡ xià bù
及 ,众       寡   不   相     恃 ,   贵 贱   不   相    救 ,   上      下   不

xiānɡ shōu , zú lí ér bù jí , bīnɡ hé ér bù qí 。 hé yú lì ér dònɡ ,
相       收 ,   卒 离 而 不 集 ,兵   合 而 不 齐 。 合 于 利 而 动 ,

bù hé yú lì ér zhǐ 。 ɡǎn wèn :dí zhònɡ zhěnɡ ér jiānɡ lái ,dài zhī
不 合 于 利 而 止 。  敢   问 :  敌  众       整      而  将    来 , 待 之

ruò hé ? yuē : xiān duó qí suǒ ài zé tīnɡ yǐ 。 bīnɡ zhī qínɡ zhǔ
若   何 ?  曰 :   先    夺  其  所  爱 则  听  矣 。  兵   之    情    主

sù , chénɡ rén zhī bù jí 。yóu bù yú zhī dào ,ɡōnɡ qí suǒ bú jiè yě 。

速 ,   乘     人    之 不 及 。由  不 虞  之  道 ,    攻   其   所  不 戒 也 。
fán wéi kè zhī dào , shēn rù zé zhuān 。 zhǔ rén bú kè , lüè yú ráo
凡   为  客 之  道 ,     深   入  则   专 。      主  人   不 克 ,  掠 于 饶

yě , sān jūn zú shí 。jǐn yǎnɡ ér wù láo ,bìnɡ qì jī lì , yùn bīnɡ
野 , 三   军   足 食 。 谨  养   而  勿 劳 ,   并  气 积 力 ,运  兵

jì móu , wéi bù kě cè 。
计 谋 ,    为  不 可 测 。

tóu zhī wú suǒ wǎnɡ , sǐ qiě bù běi , sǐ yān bù dé , shì rén jìn
投  之   无   所    往 ,     死 且 不 北 ,  死 焉  不  得 , 士  人  尽

lì 。 bīnɡ shì shèn xiàn zé bú jù , wú suǒ wǎnɡ zé ɡù , shēn rù zé
力 。 兵   士   甚     陷   则 不 惧 , 无  所   往     则  固 ,  深    入 则

jū , bù dé yǐ zé dòu 。 shì ɡù qí bīnɡ bù xiū ér chénɡ , bù qiú ér
拘 ,不 得 已 则 斗 。     是 故 其  兵    不 修   而  成 ,     不  求  而

dé , bù yuē ér qīn , bú lìnɡ ér xìn , jìn xiánɡ qù yí , zhì sǐ wú
得 , 不   约  而 亲 ,  不  令   而 信 ,  禁  祥     去 疑 , 至 死 无

suǒ zhī 。
所   之 。

wú shì wú yú cái,fēi è huò yě ; wú yú mìnɡ ,fēi è shòu yě 。lìnɡ
吾   士  无  余 财,非 恶 货  也 ;  无  余  命 ,   非 恶  寿   也 。 令

fā zhī rì , shì zú zuò zhě tì zhān jīn , yǎn wò zhě tì jiāo yí ,
发 之 日 , 士 卒  坐   者  涕 沾   襟 ,   偃  卧  者  涕 交  颐 ,

tóu zhī wú suǒ wǎnɡ zhě ,zhū 、ɡuì zhī yǒnɡ yě 。 ɡù shàn yònɡ bīnɡ
投   之  无   所    往     者 ,  诸 、  刿  之   勇    也 。  故  善    用      兵

zhě , pì rú lǜ rán 。lǜ rán zhě ,chánɡ shān zhī shé yě 。jī qí shǒu
者 ,   譬 如 率 然 。 率 然 者 ,    常       山    之  蛇  也 。击 其 首

zé wěi zhì , jī qí wěi zé shǒu zhì , jī qí zhōnɡ zé shóu wěi jù zhì 。
则  尾  至 ,击 其 尾  则  首     至 ,击 其  中     则  首     尾  俱 至 。

ɡǎn wèn :bīnɡ kě shǐ rú lǜ rán hū ?yuē : kě 。fū wú rén yǔ yuè rén
敢     问 :   兵   可 使  如 率 然  乎 ? 曰 :  可 。夫  吴  人  与  越  人

xiānɡ è yě , dānɡ qí tónɡ zhōu ér jì , yù fēnɡ , qí xiānɡ jiù yě ,
相     恶 也 , 当     其  同     舟   而 济 ,遇 风 ,    其  相    救 也 ,

rú zuǒ yòu shǒu 。 shì ɡù fānɡ mǎ mái lún , wèi zú shì yě ; qí yǒnɡ
如  左   右   手 。     是  故  方    马   埋   轮 ,   未  足 恃 也 ; 其  勇

rú yī , zhènɡ zhī dào yě ; ɡānɡ róu jiē dé ,dì zhī lǐ yě 。ɡù shàn
如 一 , 政      之  道   也 ;   刚    柔   皆 得 ,地 之 理 也 。故 善

yònɡ bīnɡ zhě , xié shǒu ruò shǐ yì rén , bù dé yǐ yě 。
用      兵     者 ,   携   手    若  使  一 人 ,  不 得 已 也 。

jiānɡ jūn zhī shì , jìnɡ yǐ yōu , zhènɡ yǐ zhì 。nénɡ yú shì zú zhī
将      军  之  事 ,   静  以 幽 ,     正    以 治 。  能    愚  士 卒 之

ěr mù , shǐ zhī wú zhī ; yì qí shì , ɡé qí móu , shǐ rén wú shí ;
耳 目 ,   使  之 无   知 ; 易 其 事 , 革 其 谋 ,     使  人  无  识 ;

yì qí jū , yū qí tú , shǐ rén bù dé lǜ 。 shuài yǔ zhī qī ,rú dēnɡ
易 其 居,迂 其 途 , 使  人  不 得 虑 。   帅    与  之 期 ,如 登

ɡāo ér qù qí tī ; shuài yǔ zhī shēn rù zhū hóu zhī dì , ér fā qí jī ,
高   而  去 其 梯 ; 帅   与  之    深  入   诸  侯   之  地, 而 发 其 机 ,

fén zhōu pò fǔ , ruò qū qún yánɡ ,qū ér wǎnɡ , qū ér lái , mò zhī
焚   舟     破 釜 ,  若  驱    群  羊 ,    驱 而   往 ,    驱 而 来 , 莫  知

suǒ zhī 。 jù sān jūn zhī zhònɡ , tóu zhī yú xiǎn ,cǐ wèi jiānɡ jūn
所   之 。  聚 三   军  之   众 ,       投  之  于   险 ,此  谓   将    军

zhī shì yě 。
之  事  也 。

jiǔ dì zhī biàn , qū shēn zhī lì , rén qínɡ zhī lǐ , bù kě bù chá 。
九 地 之  变 ,     屈  伸   之 利 ,  人  情   之  理 , 不 可 不  察 。

fán wéi kè zhī dào , shēn zé zhuān , qiǎn zé sàn 。 qù ɡuó yuè jìnɡ
凡    为  客 之  道 ,     深   则   专 ,      浅   则  散 。   去 国   越   境

ér shī zhě , jué dì yě ; sì dá zhě ,qú dì yě ;rù shēn zhě ,zhònɡ
而 师  者 ,   绝 地 也 ; 四 达 者 ,  衢 地 也 ;入 深     者 ,  重

dì yě ; rù qiǎn zhě , qīnɡ dì yě ; bèi ɡù qián ài zhě , wéi dì yě ;
地 也 ; 入  浅   者 ,     轻 地 也 ;  背   固  前   隘 者  , 围  地 也 ;

wú suǒ wǎnɡ zhě , sǐ dì yě 。
无  所    往      者 ,  死 地 也 。

shì ɡù sǎn dì wú jiānɡ yì qí zhì,qīnɡ dì wú jiānɡ shǐ zhī shǔ ,zhēnɡ
是  故   散 地 吾   将    一 其  志 ,轻 地  吾   将    使  之   属 ,  争

dì wú jiānɡ qū qí hòu,jiāo dì wú jiānɡ jǐn qí shǒu , qú dì wú jiānɡ
地 吾   将    趋 其 后,   交 地  吾   将    谨 其  守 ,    衢 地  吾  将

ɡù qí jié , zhònɡ dì wú jiānɡ jì qí shí , pǐ dì wú jiānɡ jìn qí tú ,
固 其 结 ,   重     地  吾  将   继 其 食 , 圮 地 吾  将   进 其 途 ,

wéi dì wú jiānɡ sāi qí què , sǐ dì wú jiānɡ shì zhī yǐ bù huó 。
围  地  吾  将     塞 其  阙 ,  死 地 吾  将    示  之  以 不 活 。

ɡù bīnɡ zhī qínɡ : wéi zé yù , bù dé yǐ zé dòu , ɡuò zé cónɡ 。
故  兵     之  情 :    围   则 御 , 不  得 已 则  斗 ,    过 则  从 。

shì ɡù bù zhī zhū hóu zhī móu zhě , bù nénɡ yù jiāo ; bù zhī shān
是  故 不  知  诸   侯   之    谋    者 ,    不  能   预   交 ;  不  知   山

lín 、 xián zǔ 、 jǔ zé zhī xínɡ zhě , bù nénɡ xínɡ jūn ; bú yònɡ
林 、  险   阻 、 沮 泽 之  形    者 ,   不   能    行    军 ;   不  用

xiānɡ dǎo zhě , bù nénɡ dé dì lì 。 sì wǔ zhě , bù zhī yī , fēi bà
乡       导   者 ,   不    能   得 地 利 。四 五 者 ,  不 知 一 , 非 霸

wánɡ zhī bīnɡ yě 。fū bà wánɡ zhī bīnɡ , fá dà ɡuó , zé qí zhònɡ bù
王      之   兵    也 。 夫 霸  王    之   兵 ,    伐 大 国 ,   则 其  众     不

dé jù ; wēi jiā yú dí , zé qí jiāo bù dé hé 。 shì ɡù bù zhēnɡ tiān
得 聚 ;  威 加  于 敌 ,则 其  交  不  得 合 。  是 故  不   争      天

xià zhī jiāo , bù yǎnɡ tiān xià zhī quán , xìn jǐ zhī sī , wēi jiā
下  之  交 ,   不   养    天    下 之    权 ,    信 己 之 私 , 威 加

yú dí , ɡù qí chénɡ kě bá , qí ɡuó kě huī 。
于 敌 , 故 其  城      可 拔 , 其  国  可  隳 。

shī wú fǎ zhī shǎnɡ ,xuán wú zhènɡ zhī lìnɡ 。 fàn sān jūn zhī zhònɡ ,
施  无  法 之   赏 ,     悬     无   政      之  令 。    犯  三   军   之   众 ,

ruò shǐ yì rén 。 fàn zhī yǐ shì , wù ɡào yǐ yán ; fàn zhī yǐ lì ,
若   使  一 人 。   犯 之 以 事 ,  勿  告   以 言 ;   犯  之 以 利 ,

wù ɡào yǐ hài 。 tóu zhī wánɡ dì rán hòu cún ,xiàn zhī sǐ dì rán hòu
勿   告   以 害 。  投   之  亡    地  然  后    存 ,  陷   之  死 地 然  后

shēnɡ 。 fū zhònɡ xiàn yú hài , rán hòu nénɡ wéi shènɡ bài 。
生 。       夫   众      陷   于  害 ,  然   后    能     为   胜       败 。

ɡù wéi bīnɡ zhī shì , zài yú shùn xiánɡ dí zhī yì ,bìnɡ dí yí xiànɡ ,
故   为  兵    之   事 , 在  于  顺     详     敌 之 意 , 并  敌  一  向 ,

qiān lǐ shā jiànɡ , cǐ wèi qiǎo nénɡ chénɡ shì zhě yě 。shì ɡù zhènɡ
千    里  杀  将 ,   此  谓  巧    能        成      事  者 也 。 是 故     政

jǔ zhī rì , yí ɡuān zhé fú , wú tōnɡ qí shǐ , lì yú lánɡ miào zhī
举 之 日 ,夷  关     折 符 ,  无  通   其  使 , 厉 于  廊    庙    之

shànɡ , yǐ zhū qí shì 。 dí rén kāi hé , bì jí rù zhī ,xiān qí suǒ
上 ,       以  诛  其 事 。 敌 人  开  阖 , 必 亟 入 之 ,先  其 所

ài , wēi yǔ zhī qī , jiàn mò suí dí , yǐ jué zhàn shì 。shì ɡù shǐ
爱 , 微  与  之 期 ,  践  墨  随  敌 , 以 决  战    事 。 是  故  始

rú chú nǚ , dí rén kāi hé ; hòu rú tuō tù , dí bù jí jù 。
如  处   女 ,敌 人   开 阖 ;   后  如  脱  兔 ,敌 不 及 拒 。

Translation: (Translated from the Chinese version By LIONEL GILES, M.A.

(1910))

XI. THE NINE SITUATIONS

1. Sun Tzu said: The art of war recognizes nine varieties of ground: (1)

Dispersive ground; (2) facile ground; (3) contentious ground; (4) open

ground; (5) ground of intersecting highways; (6) serious ground; (7)

difficult ground; (8) hemmed-in ground; (9) desperate ground.

2. When a chieftain is fighting in his own territory, it is dispersive

ground.

3. When he has penetrated into hostile territory, but to no great distance,

it is facile ground.

4. Ground the possession of which imports great advantage to either side,

is contentious ground.

5. Ground on which each side has liberty of movement is open ground.

6. Ground which forms the key to three contiguous states, so that he who

occupies it first has most of the Empire at his command, is a ground of

intersecting highways.

7. When an army has penetrated into the heart of a hostile country, leaving

a number of fortified cities in its rear, it is serious ground.

8. Mountain forests, rugged steeps, marshes and fens–all country that

is hard to traverse: this is difficult ground.

9. Ground which is reached through narrow gorges, and from which we can

only retire by tortuous paths, so that a small number of the enemy would

suffice to crush a large body of our men: this is hemmed in ground.

10. Ground on which we can only be saved from destruction by fighting

without delay, is desperate ground.

11. On dispersive ground, therefore, fight not. On facile ground, halt

not. On contentious ground, attack not.

12. On open ground, do not try to block the enemy’s way. On the ground

of intersecting highways, join hands with your allies.

13. On serious ground, gather in plunder. In difficult ground, keep

steadily on the march.

14. On hemmed-in ground, resort to stratagem. On desperate ground, fight.

15. Those who were called skillful leaders of old knew how to drive a wedge

between the enemy’s front and rear; to prevent co-operation between his

large and small divisions; to hinder the good troops from rescuing the

bad, the officers from rallying their men.

16. When the enemy’s men were united, they managed to keep them in

disorder.

17. When it was to their advantage, they made a forward move; when

otherwise, they stopped still.

18. If asked how to cope with a great host of the enemy in orderly array

and on the point of marching to the attack, I should say: “Begin by seizing

something which your opponent holds dear; then he will be amenable to your

will.”

19. Rapidity is the essence of war: take advantage of the enemy’s

unreadiness, make your way by unexpected routes, and attack unguarded

spots.

20. The following are the principles to be observed by an invading force:

The further you penetrate into a country, the greater will be the

solidarity of your troops, and thus the defenders will not prevail against

you.

21. Make forays in fertile country in order to supply your army with food.

22. Carefully study the well-being of your men, and do not overtax them.

Concentrate your energy and hoard your strength. Keep your army

continually on the move, and devise unfathomable plans.

23. Throw your soldiers into positions whence there is no escape, and they

will prefer death to flight. If they will face death, there is nothing

they may not achieve. Officers and men alike will put forth their uttermost

strength.

24. Soldiers when in desperate straits lose the sense of fear. If there

is no place of refuge, they will stand firm. If they are in hostile country,

they will show a stubborn front. If there is no help for it, they will

fight hard.

25. Thus, without waiting to be marshaled, the soldiers will be constantly

on the qui vive; without waiting to be asked, they will do your will;

without restrictions, they will be faithful; without giving orders, they

can be trusted.

26. Prohibit the taking of omens, and do away with superstitious doubts.

Then, until death itself comes, no calamity need be feared.

27. If our soldiers are not overburdened with money, it is not because

they have a distaste for riches; if their lives are not unduly long, it

is not because they are disinclined to longevity.

28. On the day they are ordered out to battle, your soldiers may weep,

those sitting up bedewing their garments, and those lying down letting

the tears run down their cheeks. But let them once be brought to bay, and

they will display the courage of a Chu or a Kuei.

29. The skillful tactician may be likened to the shuai-jan. Now the

shuai-jan is a snake that is found in the ChUng mountains. Strike at its

head, and you will be attacked by its tail; strike at its tail, and you

will be attacked by its head; strike at its middle, and you will be attacked

by head and tail both.

30. Asked if an army can be made to imitate the shuai-jan, I should answer,

Yes. For the men of Wu and the men of Yueh are enemies; yet if they are

crossing a river in the same boat and are caught by a storm, they will

come to each other’s assistance just as the left hand helps the right.

31. Hence it is not enough to put one’s trust in the tethering of horses,

and the burying of chariot wheels in the ground

32. The principle on which to manage an army is to set up one standard

of courage which all must reach.

33. How to make the best of both strong and weak–that is a question

involving the proper use of ground.

34. Thus the skillful general conducts his army just as though he were

leading a single man, willy-nilly, by the hand.

35. It is the business of a general to be quiet and thus ensure secrecy;

upright and just, and thus maintain order.

36. He must be able to mystify his officers and men by false reports and

appearances, and thus keep them in total ignorance.

37. By altering his arrangements and changing his plans, he keeps the enemy

without definite knowledge. By shifting his camp and taking circuitous

routes, he prevents the enemy from anticipating his purpose.

38. At the critical moment, the leader of an army acts like one who has

climbed up a height and then kicks away the ladder behind him. He carries

his men deep into hostile territory before he shows his hand.

39. He burns his boats and breaks his cooking-pots; like a shepherd driving

a flock of sheep, he drives his men this way and that, and nothing knows

whither he is going.

40. To muster his host and bring it into danger:–this may be termed the

business of the general.

41. The different measures suited to the nine varieties of ground; the

expediency of aggressive or defensive tactics; and the fundamental laws

of human nature: these are things that must most certainly be studied.

42. When invading hostile territory, the general principle is, that

penetrating deeply brings cohesion; penetrating but a short way means

dispersion.

43. When you leave your own country behind, and take your army across

neighborhood territory, you find yourself on critical ground. When there

are means of communication on all four sides, the ground is one of

intersecting highways.

44. When you penetrate deeply into a country, it is serious ground. When

you penetrate but a little way, it is facile ground.

45. When you have the enemy’s strongholds on your rear, and narrow passes

in front, it is hemmed-in ground. When there is no place of refuge at all,

it is desperate ground.

46. Therefore, on dispersive ground, I would inspire my men with unity

of purpose. On facile ground, I would see that there is close connection

between all parts of my army.

47. On contentious ground, I would hurry up my rear.

48. On open ground, I would keep a vigilant eye on my defenses. On ground

of intersecting highways, I would consolidate my alliances.

49. On serious ground, I would try to ensure a continuous stream of

supplies. On difficult ground, I would keep pushing on along the road.

50. On hemmed-in ground, I would block any way of retreat. On desperate

ground, I would proclaim to my soldiers the hopelessness of saving their

lives.

51. For it is the soldier’s disposition to offer an obstinate resistance

when surrounded, to fight hard when he cannot help himself, and to obey

promptly when he has fallen into danger.

52. We cannot enter into alliance with neighboring princes until we are

acquainted with their designs. We are not fit to lead an army on the march

unless we are familiar with the face of the country–its mountains and

forests, its pitfalls and precipices, its marshes and swamps. We shall

be unable to turn natural advantages to account unless we make use of local

guides.

53. To be ignored of any one of the following four or five principles does

not befit a warlike prince.

54. When a warlike prince attacks a powerful state, his generalship shows

itself in preventing the concentration of the enemy’s forces. He overawes

his opponents, and their allies are prevented from joining against him.

55. Hence he does not strive to ally himself with all and sundry, nor does

he foster the power of other states. He carries out his own secret designs,

keeping his antagonists in awe. Thus he is able to capture their cities

and overthrow their kingdoms.

56. Bestow rewards without regard to rule, issue orders without regard

to previous arrangements; and you will be able to handle a whole army as

though you had to do with but a single man.

57. Confront your soldiers with the deed itself; never let them know your

design. When the outlook is bright, bring it before their eyes; but tell

them nothing when the situation is gloomy.

58. Place your army in deadly peril, and it will survive; plunge it into

desperate straits, and it will come off in safety.

59. For it is precisely when a force has fallen into harm’s way that is

capable of striking a blow for victory.

60. Success in warfare is gained by carefully accommodating ourselves to

the enemy’s purpose.

61. By persistently hanging on the enemy’s flank, we shall succeed in the

long run in killing the commander-in-chief.

62. This is called ability to accomplish a thing by sheer cunning.

63. On the day that you take up your command, block the frontier passes,

destroy the official tallies, and stop the passage of all emissaries.

64. Be stern in the council-chamber, so that you may control the situation.

65. If the enemy leaves a door open, you must rush in.

66. Forestall your opponent by seizing what he holds dear, and subtly

contrive to time his arrival on the ground.

67. Walk in the path defined by rule, and accommodate yourself to the enemy

until you can fight a decisive battle.

68. At first, then, exhibit the coyness of a maiden, until the enemy gives

you an opening; afterwards emulate the rapidity of a running hare, and

it will be too late for the enemy to oppose you.

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