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Waging War – zuo zhan pian di er

Apr. 1, 2015

Sun Zi’s Art of War was written by Sun Wu in the final year of the Spring and Autumn

Period (770BC – 476BC).

It is not only the oldest Chinese military work in existence but also the oldest book

of military theory in the world, well-known for a long time in the history of the

military academy in China and abroad.

Sun Zi’s Art of War has altogether 13 chapters. Both concise and comprehensive,

this book sum up the experience of ancient wars, bring to light the many laws of

war which are of universal significance.

Want to know why business people like it so much? Come and learn Sun Zi’s Art of

War with eChineseLearning’s professional teachers!

zuò zhàn piān dì èr
作     战    篇   第 二

sūnzi yuē :fán yònɡ bīnɡ zhī fǎ ,chí chē qiān sì ,ɡé chē qiān shènɡ,
孙子   曰 : 凡    用     兵    之 法 , 驰  车   千  驷 ,革  车   千     乘 ,

dài jiǎ shí wàn,qiān lǐ kuì liánɡ。zé nèi wài zhī fèi , bīn kè zhī yònɡ ,
带  甲  十  万,   千  里 馈  粮 。   则 内   外  之  费 ,  宾  客 之   用 ,

jiāo qī zhī cái,chē jiǎ zhī fènɡ,rì fèi qiān jīn,rán hòu shí wàn zhī shī jǔ yǐ。
胶  漆  之 材,  车  甲  之  奉 , 日 费  千   金 ,然  后    十  万   之  师 举 矣。

qí yònɡ zhàn yě shènɡ ,jiǔ zé dùn bīnɡ cuò ruì ,ɡōnɡ chénɡ zé lì qū,
其  用     战    也   胜 ,    久 则  钝    兵    挫   锐 ,   攻    城      则 力 屈,

jiǔ pù shī zé ɡuó yònɡ bù zú 。 fū dùn bīnɡ cuò ruì , qū lì dān huò ,
久 暴  师  则  国    用    不 足 。 夫  钝    兵    挫   锐 , 屈 力 殚   货,

zé zhū hóu chénɡ qí bì ér qǐ,suī yǒu zhì zhě,bù nénɡ shàn qí hòu yǐ 。
则 诸    侯     乘    其 弊 而起, 虽  有   智  者, 不  能      善    其 后  矣 。

ɡù bīnɡ wén zhuō sù , wèi dǔ qiǎo zhī jiǔ yě 。
故  兵     闻    拙    速 ,  未  睹  巧    之  久 也 。

fū bīnɡ jiǔ ér ɡuó lì zhě , wèi zhī yǒu yě 。
夫 兵    久 而 国   利 者 ,  未  之   有  也。

ɡù bú jìn zhī yònɡ bīnɡ zhī hài zhě,zé bù nénɡ jìn zhī yònɡ bīnɡ zhī lì yě 。
故 不  尽  知  用     兵     之  害  者 ,则  不  能    尽  知   用     兵    之 利 也。

shàn yònɡ bīnɡ zhě , yì bú zài jí , liánɡ bù sān zǎi 。
善      用     兵     者 ,  役 不 再 籍,  粮    不  三  载 。

qǔ yònɡ yú ɡuó , yīn liánɡ yú dí , ɡù jūn shí kě zú yě 。
取   用    于  国 ,   因    粮   于 敌,  故  军  食  可 足 也 。

ɡuó zhī pín yú shī zhě yuǎn shū , yuǎn shū zé bǎi xìnɡ pín ;
国    之  贫  于  师  者   远     输 ,    远    输  则 百   姓    贫 ;

jìn yú shī zhě ɡuì mài , ɡuì mài zé bǎi xìnɡ cái jié ,
近  于 师  者  贵   卖 ,    贵   卖 则 百    姓   财  竭 ,

cái jié zé jí yú qiū yì 。 lì qū cái dān , zhōnɡ yuán nèi xū yú jiā 。
财  竭 则 急 于 丘 役 。力 屈 财 殚 ,    中       原    内  虚 于 家 。

bǎi xìnɡ zhī fèi shí qù zhī qī ; ɡōnɡ jiɑ zhī fèi , pò chē bà mǎ ,
百  姓    之  费  十  去 之 七 ;    公   家  之  费 , 破  车  罢  马 ,

jiǎ zhòu shǐ nǔ , jǐ shǔn bì lǔ , qiū niú dà chē , shí qù zhī liù 。
甲  胄     矢 弩 , 戟 楯   蔽 橹 , 丘  牛  大  车 ,   十  去 之  六。

ɡù zhì jiànɡ wù shí yú dí , shí dí yì zhōnɡ , dānɡ wú èr shí zhōnɡ ;
故  智   将    务  食  于 敌 , 食 敌 一 钟 ,        当    吾 二  十   钟 ;

qí ɡǎn yì dān , dānɡ wú èr shí dān 。
萁 秆  一  石 ,     当   吾 二  十  石 。

ɡù shā dí zhě , nù yě ; qǔ dí zhī lì zhě , huò yě 。 ɡù chē zhàn
故  杀  敌 者 ,   怒 也 ; 取 敌 之 利 者 ,   货  也。   故  车    战

dé chē shí chénɡ yǐ shànɡ ,shǎnɡ qí xiān dé zhě,ér ɡēnɡ qí jīnɡ qí。
得  车   十  乘      已   上 ,      赏    其  先   得  者 ,而  更    其  旌  旗。

chē zá ér chénɡ zhī,zú shàn ér yǎnɡ zhī,shì wèi shènɡ dí ér yì qiánɡ。
车   杂 而   乘     之 ,卒  善   而   养   之,  是  谓   胜      敌 而 益 强 。

ɡù bīnɡ ɡuì shènɡ , bú ɡuì jiǔ 。
故  兵    贵    胜 ,      不  贵  久 。

ɡù zhī bīnɡ zhī jiànɡ,shēnɡ mín zhī sī mìnɡ,ɡuó jiā ān wēi zhī zhǔ yě 。
故 知   兵    之   将 ,    生      民   之 司  命 ,   国   家 安  危  之  主   也 。

Translation:(Translated from the Chinese version By LIONEL GILES, M.A.

(1910))

II. WAGING WAR

1. Sun Tzu said: In the operations of war, where there are in the field

a thousand swift chariots, as many heavy chariots, and a hundred thousand

mail-clad soldiers, with provisions enough to carry them a thousand li,

the expenditure at home and at the front, including entertainment of

guests, small items such as glue and paint, and sums spent on chariots

and armor, will reach the total of a thousand ounces of silver per day.

Such is the cost of raising an army of 100,000 men.

2. When you engage in actual fighting, if victory is long in coming, then

men’s weapons will grow dull and their ardor will be damped. If you lay

siege to a town, you will exhaust your strength.

3. Again, if the campaign is protracted, the resources of the State will

not be equal to the strain.

4. Now, when your weapons are dulled, your ardor damped, your strength

exhausted and your treasure spent, other chieftains will spring up to take

advantage of your extremity. Then no man, however wise, will be able to

avert the consequences that must ensue.

5. Thus, though we have heard of stupid haste in war, cleverness has never

been seen associated with long delays.

6. There is no instance of a country having benefited from prolonged

warfare.

7. It is only one who is thoroughly acquainted with the evils of war that

can thoroughly understand the profitable way of carrying it on.

8. The skillful soldier does not raise a second levy, neither are his

supply-wagons loaded more than twice.

9. Bring war material with you from home, but forage on the enemy. Thus

the army will have food enough for its needs.

10. Poverty of the State exchequer causes an army to be maintained by

contributions from a distance. Contributing to maintain an army at a

distance causes the people to be impoverished.

11. On the other hand, the proximity of an army causes prices to go up;

and high prices cause the people’s substance to be drained away.

12. When their substance is drained away, the peasantry will be afflicted

by heavy exactions.

13,14. With this loss of substance and exhaustion of strength, the homes

of the people will be stripped bare, and three-tenths of their income will

be dissipated; while government expenses for broken chariots, worn-out

horses, breast-plates and helmets, bows and arrows, spears and shields,

protective mantles, draught-oxen and heavy wagons, will amount to

four-tenths of its total revenue.

15. Hence a wise general makes a point of foraging on the enemy. One

cartload of the enemy’s provisions is equivalent to twenty of one’s own,

and likewise a single picul of his provender is equivalent to twenty from

one’s own store.

16. Now in order to kill the enemy, our men must be roused to anger; that

there may be advantage from defeating the enemy, they must have their

rewards.

17. Therefore in chariot fighting, when ten or more chariots have been

taken, those should be rewarded who took the first. Our own flags should

be substituted for those of the enemy, and the chariots mingled and used

in conjunction with ours. The captured soldiers should be kindly treated

and kept.

18. This is called, using the conquered foe to augment one’s own strength.

19. In war, then, let your great object be victory, not lengthy campaigns.

20. Thus it may be known that the leader of armies is the arbiter of the

people’s fate, the man on whom it depends whether the nation shall be in

peace or in peril.

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