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Maneuvering – jun zheng pian di qi

Apr. 1, 2015

Sun Zi’s Art of War was written by Sun Wu in the final year of the Spring and Autumn

Period (770BC – 476BC).

It is not only the oldest Chinese military work in existence but also the oldest book

of military theory in the world, well-known for a long time in the history of the

military academy in China and abroad.

Sun Zi’s Art of War has altogether 13 chapters. Both concise and comprehensive,

this book sum up the experience of ancient wars, bring to light the many laws of

war which are of universal significance.

Want to know why business people like it so much? Come and learn Sun Zi’s Art of

War with eChineseLearning’s professional teachers!

jūn zhēnɡ piān dì qī
军   争        篇   第 七

sūnzi yuē : fán yònɡ bīnɡ zhī fǎ , jiànɡ shòu mìnɡ yú jūn ,hé jūn
孙子  曰 :   凡    用    兵     之  法 , 将     受     命      于 君 , 合 军

jù zhònɡ , jiāo hé ér shě ,mò nán yú jūn zhēnɡ 。 jūn zhēnɡ zhī nán
聚  众 ,      交   和 而 舍 ,  莫   难  于   军   争 。      军   争       之  难

zhě ,yǐ yū wéi zhí , yǐ huàn wéi lì 。ɡù yū qí tú,ér yòu zhī yǐ lì ,
者 ,  以 迂 为  直,  以  患    为 利 。 故 迂 其 途 ,而 诱 之 以 利 ,

hòu rén fā , xiān rén zhì 。 cǐ zhī yū zhí zhī jì zhě yě 。
后    人 发 ,   先   人  至 。  此 知 迂 直  之 计 者  也 。

ɡù jūn zhēnɡ wéi lì ,jūn zhēnɡ wéi wēi 。jǔ jūn ér zhēnɡ lì zé bù jí ,
故  军   争      为  利 , 军  争      为   危 。 举 军  而   争   利 则 不 及 ,

wěi jūn ér zhēnɡ lì zé zī zhònɡ juān 。 shì ɡù juǎn jiǎ ér qū ,rì yè
委   军  而  争     利 则 辎  重     捐 。    是 故   卷   甲 而 趋 ,日 夜

bú chù , bèi dào jiān xínɡ , bǎi lǐ ér zhēnɡ lì , zé qín sān jiànɡ
不   处 ,   倍  道    兼   行 ,   百 里 而  争    利 , 则 擒  三    将

jūn , jìn zhě xiān , pí zhě hòu , qí fǎ shí yì ér zhì ; wǔ shí lǐ
军 ,   劲  者  先 ,   疲  者   后 ,  其 法 十 一 而 至 ; 五  十 里

ér zhēnɡ lì , zé jué shànɡ jiānɡ jūn , qí fǎ bàn zhì; sān shí lǐ ér
而  争    利 , 则  蹶  上      将      军 ,  其 法 半  至 ; 三  十 里 而

zhēnɡ lì , zé sān fēn zhī èr zhì 。 shì ɡù jūn wú zī zhònɡ zé wánɡ ,
争      利 , 则 三  分   之  二 至 。 是  故  军  无 辎    重    则   亡,

wú liánɡ shi zé wánɡ , wú wēi jī zé wánɡ 。
无   粮    食  则   亡 ,    无   危 积 则  亡 。

ɡù bù zhī zhū hóu zhī móu zhě , bù nénɡ yù jiāo ; bù zhī shān lín 、
故 不   知  诸   侯   之  谋     者 ,   不   能   豫   交 ;   不 知   山    林 、

xián zǔ 、 jǔ zé zhī xínɡ zhě , bù nénɡ xínɡ jūn ;bú yònɡ xiānɡ dǎo
险    阻 、 沮 泽 之  形    者 ,  不   能      行   军 ; 不   用     乡      导

zhě , bù nénɡ dé dì lì 。 ɡù bīnɡ yǐ zhà lì ,yǐ lì dònɡ ,yǐ fēn hé
者 ,    不 能     得 地 利 。 故  兵  以 诈 立 ,以 利 动 , 以 分  合

wéi biàn zhě yě 。 ɡù qí jí rú fēnɡ , qí xú rú lín , qīn lüè rú huǒ ,
为   变     者  也 。 故 其 疾 如 风 ,  其 徐 如 林 , 侵   掠  如  火 ,

bú dònɡ rú shān , nán zhī rú yīn , dònɡ rú léi zhèn 。lüè xiānɡ fēn
不   动    如   山 ,    难   知  如 阴 ,  动     如  雷  震 。   掠   乡    分

zhònɡ , kuò dì fēn lì , xuán quán ér dònɡ 。 xiān zhī yū zhí zhī jì
众 ,         廓  地 分  利 , 悬    权    而   动 。      先  知  迂 直  之 计

zhě shènɡ , cǐ jūn zhēnɡ zhī fǎ yě 。
者     胜 ,     此 军    争     之 法 也 。

《 jūn zhènɡ 》 yuē : “ yán bù xiānɡ wén , ɡù wéi jīn ɡǔ ; shì bù
《 军    政 》      曰 : “   言   不  相      闻 ,    故  为  金  鼓 ; 视 不

xiānɡ jiàn , ɡù wéi jīnɡ qí 。 ” fū jīn ɡǔ jīnɡ qí zhě , suó yǐ yì
相       见 ,   故  为  旌   旗 。 ” 夫 金 鼓 旌   旗  者 ,  所  以 一

rén zhī ěr mù yě 。 rén jí zhuān yī , zé yǒnɡ zhě bù dé dú jìn ,qiè
人   之  耳 目  也 。 人 即  专     一 , 则  勇    者   不  得 独 进 , 怯

zhě bù dé dú tuì , cǐ yònɡ zhònɡ zhī fǎ yě 。 ɡù yè zhàn duō huǒ ɡǔ ,
者   不  得 独  退 , 此  用     众      之  法 也 。 故 夜  战     多    火  鼓 ,

zhòu zhàn duō jīnɡ qí , suó yǐ biàn rén zhī ěr mù yě 。
昼      战      多  旌   旗 ,  所  以  变   人  之  耳 目  也 。

ɡù sān jūn kě duó qì , jiānɡ jūn kě duó xīn 。 shì ɡù zhāo qì ruì ,
故  三   军  可  夺  气 ,   将   军  可   夺   心 。  是 故  朝    气  锐 ,

zhòu qì duò , mù qì ɡuī 。 ɡù shàn yònɡ bīnɡ zhě ,bì qí ruì qì ,jī
昼     气  惰 ,    暮 气 归 。   故  善    用      兵     者 ,避 其 锐 气 ,击

qí duò ɡuī , cǐ zhì qì zhě yě 。 yǐ zhì dài luàn , yǐ jìnɡ dài huá ,
其  惰   归 , 此 治  气  者 也 。 以 治  待   乱 ,  以  静   待  哗 ,

cǐ zhì xīn yě 。 yǐ jìn dài yuǎn , yǐ yì dài láo , yǐ bǎo dài jī ,
此 治 心  也 。 以 近 待   远 ,   以 逸 待 劳 ,  以 饱   待 饥 ,

cǐ zhì lì zhě yě 。 wú yāo zhènɡ zhènɡ zhī qí , wù jī tánɡ tánɡ zhī
此 治 力 者 也 。 无   邀    正       正      之  旗 , 勿 击 堂    堂    之

chén , cǐ zhì biàn zhě yě 。
陈 ,     此 治  变    者  也 。

ɡù yònɡ bīnɡ zhī fǎ , ɡāo línɡ wù xiànɡ , bèi qiū wù nì , yánɡ běi
故   用     兵    之  法 , 高    陵   勿   向 ,     背   丘 勿 逆 ,   佯   北

wù cónɡ , ruì zú wù ɡōnɡ , ěr bīnɡ wù shí , ɡuī shī wù è , wéi shī
勿   从 ,     锐 卒 勿    攻 ,    饵  兵    勿  食 , 归   师  勿 遏,围 师

bì què , qiónɡ kòu wù zhuī , cǐ yònɡ bīnɡ zhī fǎ yě 。
必 阙 ,      穷     寇    勿  追 ,   此  用    兵   之  法 也 。

Translation:(Translated from the Chinese version By LIONEL GILES, M.A.

(1910))

VII. MANEUVERING

1. Sun Tzu said: In war, the general receives his commands from the

sovereign.

2. Having collected an army and concentrated his forces, he must blend

and harmonize the different elements thereof before pitching his camp.

3. After that, comes tactical maneuvering, than which there is nothing

more difficult. The difficulty of tactical maneuvering consists in

turning the devious into the direct, and misfortune into gain.

4. Thus, to take a long and circuitous route, after enticing the enemy

out of the way, and though starting after him, to contrive to reach the

goal before him, shows knowledge of the artifice of DEVIATION.

5. Maneuvering with an army is advantageous; with an undisciplined

multitude, most dangerous.

6. If you set a fully equipped army in march in order to snatch an advantage,

the chances are that you will be too late. On the other hand, to detach

a flying column for the purpose involves the sacrifice of its baggage and

stores.

7. Thus, if you order your men to roll up their buff-coats, and make forced

marches without halting day or night, covering double the usual distance

at a stretch, doing a hundred LI in order to wrest an advantage, the leaders

of all your three divisions will fall into the hands of the enemy.

8. The stronger men will be in front, the jaded ones will fall behind,

and on this plan only one-tenth of your army will reach its destination.

9. If you march fifty LI in order to outmaneuver the enemy, you will lose

the leader of your first division, and only half your force will reach

the goal.

10. If you march thirty LI with the same object, two-thirds of your army

will arrive.

11. We may take it then that an army without its baggage-train is lost;

without provisions it is lost; without bases of supply it is lost.

12. We cannot enter into alliances until we are acquainted with the designs

of our neighbors.

13. We are not fit to lead an army on the march unless we are familiar

with the face of the country–its mountains and forests, its pitfalls and

precipices, its marshes and swamps.

14. We shall be unable to turn natural advantage to account unless we make

use of local guides.

15. In war, practice dissimulation, and you will succeed.

16. Whether to concentrate or to divide your troops, must be decided by

circumstances.

17. Let your rapidity be that of the wind, your compactness that of the

forest.

18. In raiding and plundering be like fire, is immovability like a

mountain.

19. Let your plans be dark and impenetrable as night, and when you move,

fall like a thunderbolt.

20. When you plunder a countryside, let the spoil be divided amongst your

men; when you capture new territory, cut it up into allotments for the

benefit of the soldiery.

21. Ponder and deliberate before you make a move.

22. He will conquer who has learnt the artifice of deviation. Such is the

art of maneuvering.

23. The Book of Army Management says: On the field of battle, the spoken

word does not carry far enough: hence the institution of gongs and drums.

Nor can ordinary objects be seen clearly enough: hence the institution

of banners and flags.

24. Gongs and drums, banners and flags, are means whereby the ears and

eyes of the host may be focused on one particular point.

25. The host thus forming a single united body, is it impossible either

for the brave to advance alone, or for the cowardly to retreat alone. This

is the art of handling large masses of men.

26. In night-fighting, then, make much use of signal-fires and drums, and

in fighting by day, of flags and banners, as a means of influencing the

ears and eyes of your army.

27. A whole army may be robbed of its spirit; a commander-in-chief may

be robbed of his presence of mind.

28. Now a soldier’s spirit is keenest in the morning; by noonday it has

begun to flag; and in the evening, his mind is bent only on returning to

camp.

29. A clever general, therefore, avoids an army when its spirit is keen,

but attacks it when it is sluggish and inclined to return. This is the

art of studying moods.

30. Disciplined and calm, to await the appearance of disorder and hubbub

amongst the enemy:–this is the art of retaining self-possession.

31. To be near the goal while the enemy is still far from it, to wait at

ease while the enemy is toiling and struggling, to be well-fed while the

enemy is famished:–this is the art of husbanding one’s strength.

32. To refrain from intercepting an enemy whose banners are in perfect

order, to refrain from attacking an army drawn up in calm and confident

array:–this is the art of studying circumstances.

33. It is a military axiom not to advance uphill against the enemy, nor

to oppose him when he comes downhill.

34. Do not pursue an enemy who simulates flight; do not attack soldiers

whose temper is keen.

35. Do not swallow bait offered by the enemy. Do not interfere with an

army that is returning home.

36. When you surround an army, leave an outlet free. Do not press a

desperate foe too hard.

37. Such is the art of warfare.

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